Propaganda was an important tool used to encourage the Hutu majority to turn against their Tutsi neighbours, to isolate political moderates, to create a sense of pan-Hutu solidarity and, finally, to participate in organised violence against the Tutsi. The independent Radio Television Libre des Mille Collines (RTLM) was set up by Habyarimana's allies in 1993 to spread hate propaganda.

Nearly two dozen newspapers and journals preached hatred towards the Tutsi. Kangura led the way. It urged the Hutu to prepare for pre-emptive action because the Tutsi were planning a war that would 'leave
no survivors'. As early as December 1990, Kangura published the infamous 'Hutu Ten Commandments', which branded as a traitor any Hutu who interacted with a Tutsi.